Climate Change and Persistent Organic Pollutants

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Climate change is expected to hit developing countries the hardest. Its effects—higher temperatures, in precipitation patterns, rising sea levels, and more weather-related disasters—pose risks for , food, and water supplies. At are recent gains in the fight against , hunger and disease, and the lives and livelihoods of billions of people in countries. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer was adopted in 1987 as an international treaty to the production and consumption of ozone-depleting . A subsequent amendment created the Multilateral Fund for the Implementation of the Montreal Protocol, becoming the first of the multilateral agreements to establish a financial mechanism for . The World Bank has developed a strong with the Multilateral Fund (MLF) since its establishment in 1990. The Bank continues to assist the MLF to human health and the environment by the earth's stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol's success will be based on having created an enduring commitment to stop producing and consuming substances that the ozone layer. This commitment must be across boundaries and by all of the world. The sustainability of our efforts empowered partners for technical , policy implementation and project management. One of the causes of Ozone depletion is Persistent organic pollutants, POPs, which are substances released into the environment a variety of human activities. They have effects on the health of ecosystems, , and people. The World Bank is in ongoing work on POPs aiming to our client countries to protect human health and the environment from POPs the globe. Of all the pollutants into the environment every year by human activity, organic pollutants (POPs) are among the most dangerous. Persistent Organic Pollutants are either used as pesticides, by industry, or generated unintentionally as by-products of industrial/combustion processes. They are highly toxic, an array of adverse effects, notably , disease, and birth defects among humans and animals. Specific effects can include cancer, and hypersensitivity, damage to the central and nervous systems, reproductive disorders, and disruption of the immune system. Some POPs are also to be endocrine disrupters, , by altering the hormonal system, can the reproductive and immune systems of exposed individuals as well as their ; they can also have developmental and carcinogenic . These highly stable compounds can for years or decades before breaking down. They circulate globally through a process as the 'grasshopper effect' POPs released in one part of the world can, through a repeated (and often seasonal) process of and deposit, be transported through the to regions far away from the source. In addition, POPs concentrate in organisms through another process called bioaccumulation. not soluble in water, POPs are absorbed in fatty tissue, where concentrations can become magnified by up to 70,000 times the background levels.